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Table 1 Comparison of human anxiety disorders to anxiety-like behavior in mice

From: Anxiety genetics – findings from cross-species genome-wide approaches

Disorder Human symptoms Observed behavior in mice Behavioral test in mice
Generalized anxiety disorder Excessive worry about everyday life, leading to difficulties in concentration Decreased social interaction, impaired sustained attention OF, L/D, Y-maze
Posttraumatic stress disorder Repeated re-experiencing traumatic events, leading to avoidance of stimuli associated with trauma Increased freezing response to fear conditioning, decreased fear extinction, more pronounced spontaneous recovery Cue and contextual fear conditioning, fear extinction
Obsessive-compulsive disorder Intrusive thoughts that produce repetitive behavior aimed at reducing anxiety Increased marble burying and excessive grooming Burrowing test, nest construction test
Social phobia avoidance of social contact, emotional discomfort caused by presence of unknown people Low social interaction Three-chamber test of sociability, social recognition test
Panic disorder Intense fearfulness of sudden onset, respiratory distress Increased escape from an aggressor Resident intruder test
Agoraphobia Avoidance of wide-open or crowded space Avoidance of exposed, bright areas OF, L/D
  1. Anxiety disorders are classified according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders of American Psychiatric Association (DSM-IV). OF, Open field test; L/D, Light/dark box test. Modified from [11].