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Table 4 Functional neuroimaging findings in panic disorder [electroencephalography]

From: The role of the amygdala in the pathophysiology of panic disorder: evidence from neuroimaging studies

   Study Subjects No. of subjects (female) Mean age (SD) Comorbid Depression Comorbid Agora-phobia Medication status Findings
Eser, 2009 [27] HC (CCK-4 injection) 77 (0)   None None None taking medication No correlations between CCK-4 induced panic symptom severity and loudness dependency of auditory evoked potentials
Lepola, 1990 [22] PD 31 (23) 37 (Range 16–52)    At some period treated with psychotropic agents, n = 32 Slow-wave activity▲ in 13 patients.
Stein, 1989 [28] PD 35 (24) 35 (8)    n = 33 free of all psychotropic drugs for a minumum of 2 weeks. n = 2 has taken a low dose of a benzodiazepine 2 days before evaluation. n = 5 (14%) had nonspecific abnormal EEGs. None had evidence supportive of an ictal process.
  1. Abbreviations: CCK-4, cholecystokinin tetrapeptide; EEG, electroencephalography; PD, panic disorder.