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Fig. 1 | Biology of Mood & Anxiety Disorders

Fig. 1

From: Sleep and REM sleep disturbance in the pathophysiology of PTSD: the role of extinction memory

Fig. 1

The “anterior paralimbic REM activation area” overlaps with fear and extinction circuits. 18Fluoro-deoxyglucose PET image of areas that reactivate during REM sleep following relative quiescence during NREM sleep. Dashed lines surround approximate cortical regions commonly activated in experimental protocols during fear conditioning (yellow lines) and during recall of extinguished conditioned fear (white) based upon Milad and Rauch [61], Fig. 3. Solid lines encircle approximate anatomic loci of subcortical structures similarly activated during fear conditioning (yellow) and extinction recall (white). The anterior paralimbic REM activation area includes the amygdala (A), and regions of dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC) and insular (not shown) cortices linked to a putative fear expression network. Additionally, this region includes the ventromedial prefrontal (vmPFC) and hippocampal (H) areas [127129] linked to a putative extinction memory network

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