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Table 1 Demographics and clinical characteristics

From: Insula response to unpredictable and predictable aversiveness in individuals with panic disorder and comorbid depression

  Controls (n= 19) MDD-only (n= 9) PD-MDD (n= 13)
Demographic variables    
 Age (years, SD) 29.6 (12.8) a 25.4 (7.7) a 39.1 (11.9) b
 Sex (% female) 68.4 a 66.7 a 76.9 a
 Race (% Caucasian) 52.6 a 22.2 a 41.7 a
 Education    
  Graduated high school or GED (%) 5.3 0.0 0.0
  Part college or graduated 2-year college (%) 21.1 55.6 50.0
  Graduated 4-year college (%) 47.4 33.3 33.3
  Part or completed graduate/professional school (%) 26.2 11.1 16.6
Current comorbid diagnoses    
 Social phobia (%) - - 23.1
 Specific phobia (%) - - 7.7
 Post-traumatic stress disorder (%) - - 7.7 a
 Generalized anxiety disorder (%) - - 0.0 a
 Obsessive compulsive disorder - - 7.7 a
Current psychiatric medications (%) 0.0 a 11.1 a 30.8 b
  1. Note. Means or percentages with different letters across rows were significantly different in pairwise comparisons (p < 0.05, chi-square test for categorical variables and Tukey’s honestly significant difference test for continuous variables). Controls individuals with no history of psychopathology, MDD-only individuals with current major depressive disorder and no history of anxiety disorders, PD-MDD individuals with current comorbid panic disorder and major depressive disorder, SD standard deviation.