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Table 3 Functional neuroimaging findings in panic disorder [near-infrared spectroscopy]

From: The role of the amygdala in the pathophysiology of panic disorder: evidence from neuroimaging studies

Study Subjects No. of subjects (female) Mean age (SD) Comorbid Depression Comorbid Agora-phobia Medication status Study paradigm Amygdala Hippocampus Ventromedial Prefrontal cortex Other brain regions
Tanii, 2009 [24] PD 71 (52) 37.9     Genotyping (COMT Val158Met polymorphism) Met/Met, n = 8 - - - Right LPFC O2Hb▲ in Met/Met
Val/Met, n = 29
Val/Val, n = 34
Dresler, 2009 [25] PD 1 (0) Case study 44 Current   Medicated with doxepine, zopiclone and amitriptyline Emotional Stroop task with words (Neutral/panic-related), before/after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment to left PFC - - - Neutral/panic-related: DLPFC O2Hb▲ after rTMS treatment (small superiority for Panic-Related)
Akiyoshi, 2003 [26] PD 23 (12) 26.5 (7.6) None Current, n = 14 Alprazolam/paroxetine, n = 19 Presentation of visual stimuli (Neutral/anxiety-relevant/ anxiety-irrelevant but emotion-relevant) - - - Anxiety-relevant/ anxiety-irrelevant but emotion-relevant: left frontal O2Hb
HC 31 (15) 24.1 (6.4)    
  1. Abbreviations: DLPFC, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; HC, healthy control; LPFC, lateral prefrontal cortex; Met, methionine; O 2 Hb, oxygenated hemoglobin; PD, panic disorder; PFC, prefrontal cortex; SD, standard deviation; Val, valine.