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Table 1 Structural neuroimaging findings in panic disorder [computerized tomography]

From: The role of the amygdala in the pathophysiology of panic disorder: evidence from neuroimaging studies

Study Subjects No. of subjects (female) Mean age (SD) Clinical state Duration of illness Comorbid Agoraphobia Medication status Imaging method Amygdala Hippocampus Ventromedial Prefrontal cortex Other brain regions
Wurthmann, 1998 [21] PD 21 (16) 35.52 (5.95) PAS 24.47 (8.25) 5.24 (5.37) Current, n = 18 Medication naive, n = 10; BDZ, n = 4; BDZ and antidepressants, n = 2; BDZ and neuroleptics, n = 1; Beta blockers, n = 1; Antidepressants, n = 3 CT, 5-mm sections in posterior fossa, 10-mm sections in central hemispheres Not assessed Not assessed Not assessed CT abnormalities: Frontal CSF space▲
HC 21 (16) 35.52 (6.68)         
Lepola, 1990 [22] PD 31 (23) 37 (Range 16–52)   6.4 (Range 4–35) With/Without - At some period treated with psychotropic agents, n = 32 CT, axial, 4-mm-thick sections in posterior fossa and basal forebrain, 4-/8-mm sections in cerebral hemispheres, n = 30 Not assessed Not assessed Not assessed CT abnormalities: Cerebral atrophy, n = 3; Lacunar infarcts, n = 2; Enlarged lateral ventricles, n = 1
  1. Abbreviations: BDZ, benzodiazepine; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; HC, healthy control; PAS, Panic and Agoraphobia Scale; PD, panic disorder; SD, standard deviation.