Amygdala and VS reactivity interact with recent stress to predict problem drinking. (A) Statistical parametric map illustrating mean bilateral threat-related amygdala reactivity (left: x=−22, y=−6, z=−18, t=19.76, p<0.000001, kE=173; right: x=28, y=−4, z=−20, t=20.16, p<0.000001, kE=199). (B) Statistical parametric map illustrating mean bilateral reward-related VS reactivity (left: x=−12, y=10, z=−10, t=6.19, p=3.07 x 10-7, kE=357; right: x=12, y=10, z=−8, t=7.31, p=1.03 x 10-9, kE=383). Activation clusters in (A) and (B) are overlaid onto canonical structural brain images in the axial plane. (C) Among participants with low VS reactivity, (1 SD below the mean), recent stress (LESS Highest Impact) was not associated with increased problem drinking (total scores on the AUDIT; square root transformed) regardless of amygdala reactivity. (D) For participants with high (1 SD above the mean) VS reactivity, recent stress predicted significant increases in problem drinking only for those who also had relatively low (1 SD below the mean) amygdala reactivity (blue line). Plotted values are adjusted for sex, age and race/ethnicity.