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Table 3 Studies of biased fear and avoidance learning in anxious children with studies presenting conflicting results to adult data italicised

From: Investigating the genetic and environmental bases of biases in threat recognition and avoidance in children with anxiety problems

Authors Sample size and age information Anxiety measure Nature of anxiety effect reported
Acquisition and extinction
Craske et al., [79] Anxious group = 23 (9.4 yrs) Clinical diagnosis Anxious group showed larger anticipatory skin conductance responses (SCR) to CS + and CS- cues during acquisition and extinction
Healthy group = 11 (9.4 yrs)
Lipp et al., [80] Anxious group = 53 (9.7 yrs) Clinical diagnosis Anxious group rated the CS + as more fear provoking after extinction (cohen’s d = 0.68) but as less fear provoking after acquisition (cohen’s d = 0.63).
Healthy group = 30 (10.1 yrs)
Pliszka et al., [[81]] ADHD/anxious group = 11 (9.9 yrs) Clinical diagnosis No group differences in SCR and cardiac responses to CS + and CS- during acquisition or extinction
Healthy group = 22 (10.2 yrs)
Waters et al., [82] Anxious group = 17 (10.2 yrs) Clinical diagnosis Anxious group showed larger SCRs to CS + and CS- and rated the CS + as more arousing during acquisition; and showed greater SCRs during extinction
Healthy group = 18 (10.2 yrs)
Lau et al., [83] Anxious group = 16 (12.8 yrs) Clinical diagnosis Anxious group rated CS + and CS- as more fear-provoking after acquisition (cohen’s d = 0.60) but only to the CS + after extinction (cohen’s d = 0.85)
Healthy group = 38 (14.0 yrs)
Lau et al., [84] High Anxious group = 18 (10.6 yrs) Anxiety Symptoms High Anxious group showed greater acquisition of avoidant responses to the CS + (threat face) (cohen’s d = 0.19-0.91)
  Low Anxious group = 18 (10.6 yrs)   
  1. GAD Generalized anxiety disorder, PTSD Post-traumatic stress disorder, SAD Separation anxiety disorder, SP social phobia, ADHD Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, MDD Major Depressive Disorder, SCR skin conductance responses.