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Table 2 Emotional face processing studies: between group fMRI findings (major depressive disorder (MDD) > healthy controls (HCs))

From: Facial emotion processing in major depression: a systematic review of neuroimaging findings

Brain region BA Sad > Baseline Fear > Baseline Angry > Baseline Happy > Baseline Disgust > Baseline Author/year Reference
Limbic lobe  
Amygdala       Fu et al. 2004 [32]
Amygdala      Peluso et al. 2009 [35]
Amygdala   a  a   Sheline et al. 2001 [34]
Amygdala      Suslow et al. 2010 [30]
Amygdala      Victor et al. 2010 [29]
Amygdala      Zhong et al. 2011 [36]
Extended amygdala     Matthews et al. 2008 [28]
Amygdala/hippocampus       Fu et al. 2008 [33]
PHG/amygdala  b      Surguladze et al. 2005 [31]
Amygdala/hippocampus       Lawrence et al. 2004 [37]
Hippocampus       Lee et al. 2008 [38]
Extended limbic system  
Insula       Fu et al. 2004 [32]
Insula 13      Gotlib et al. 2005 [45]
Insula       Keedwell et al. 2005 [42]
Insula       Surguladze et al. 2010 [39]
Insula 13     Zhong et al. 2011 [36]
Insula      Townsend et al. 2010 [40]
Insula/PHG      Suslow et al. 2010 [30]
PHG       Fu et al. 2008 [33]
PHG/globus pallidus/anterior thalamus      Lawrence et al. 2004 [37]
Thalamus       Fu et al. 2004 [32]
Striatum  
Putamen       Fu et al. 2008 [33]
Putamen  b   b   Surguladze et al. 2005 [31]
Putamen      Townsend et al. 2010 [40]
Putamen/globus pallidus       Fu et al. 2004 [32]
Uncus/amygdala/caudate/putamen       Lawrence et al. 2004 [37]
Caudate       Fu et al. 2004 [32]
Caudate       Lee et al. 2008 [38]
Caudate      Scheuerecker et al. 2010 [41]
Frontal lobe  
Motor cortex  
Premotor cortex 6      Fu et al. 2004 [32]
Middle frontal gyrus 6      Fu et al. 2008 [33]
SMA      Scheuerecker et al. 2010 [41]
Precentral gyrus 4      Fu et al. 2004 [32]
Precentral gyrus 4      Fu et al. 2008 [33]
Precentral gyrus 4      Keedwell et al. 2005 [42]
Precentral gyrus 4,6      Keedwell et al. 2005 [42]
Precentral gyrus      Scheuerecker et al. 2010 [41]
Postcentral gyrus 1, 2, 3      Fu et al. 2004 [32]
Postcentral gyrus      Frodl et al. 2009 [43]
Postcentral gyrus 2      Keedwell et al. 2005 [42]
DLPFC  
DLPFC 44, 45, 9    Lawrence et al. 2004 [37]
DLPFC 9      Keedwell et al. 2005 [42]
Superior frontal gyrus  a     Frodl et al. 2009 [43]
Superior frontal gyrus 8      Gotlib et al. 2005 [45]
Superior frontal gyrus 8      Fu et al. 2008 [33]
Superior frontal gyrus 8     Zhong et al. 2011 [36]
Middle frontal gyrus  a     Frodl et al. 2009 [43]
Middle frontal gyrus      Suslow et al. 2010 [30]
Middle frontal gyrus 8      Fu et al. 2008 [33]
Middle frontal gyrus 8      Keedwell et al. 2005 [42]
VLPFC  
VLPFC 10, 47, 45, 46      Lawrence et al. 2004 [37]
VLPFC 11      Gotlib et al. 2005 [45]
VLPFC 10/47      Keedwell et al. 2005 [42]
Middle frontal gyrus 10/47      Keedwell et al. 2005 [42]
Middle frontal gyrus      Scheuerecker et al. 2010 [41]
Cingulum  
Anterior cingulum 32      Fu et al. 2004 [32]
Anterior cingulum 24/32      Fu et al. 2008 [33]
Anterior cingulum 25     Zhong et al. 2011 [36]
Sg anterior cingulum 25      Gotlib et al. 2005 [45]
Sg anterior cingulum 24/32    a   Gotlib et al. 2005 [45]
Anterior cingulum 24      Lawrence et al. 2004 [37]
Middle cingulum 23/24      Fu et al. 2004 [32]
Middle cingulum 33/24, 32/24      Fu et al. 2008 [33]
Middle cingulum  a     Frodl et al. 2009 [43]
Middle cingulum 23      Keedwell et al. 2005 [42]
Posterior cingulum 23/31, 29/31      Fu et al. 2004 [32]
Posterior cingulum 31      Fu et al. 2008 [33]
Posterior cingulum 31      Fu et al. 2007 [63]
Posterior cingulum 31      Keedwell et al. 2005 [42]
Medial PFC  
Inferior frontal gyrus 47      Gotlib et al. 2005 [45]
Inferior frontal gyrus 47/45      Gotlib et al. 2005 [45]
Inferior frontal gyrus 45      Keedwell et al. 2005 [42]
Inferior frontal gyrus 47     Zhong et al. 2011 [36]
Medial PFC 10, 11, 47      Lawrence et al. 2004 [37]
DMPFC 8      Keedwell et al. 2005 [42]
VMPFC 10/32      Keedwell et al. 2005 [42]
Orbitofrontal cortex  
Orbitofrontal cortex 47      Surguladze et al. 2010 [39]
Orbitofrontal cortex 11      Lawrence et al. 2004 [37]
Orbitofrontal cortex 11      Keedwell et al. 2005 [42]
Orbitofrontal cortex      Lee et al. 2008 [38]
Orbitofrontal cortex      Lee et al. 2008 [38]
Temporal lobe  
Middle temporal gyrus 21      Gotlib et al. 2005 [45]
Middle temporal gyrus 21/22      Keedwell et al. 2005 [42]
Middle temporal gyrus 21      Surguladze et al. 2010 [39]
Middle temporal gyrus      Suslow et al. 2010 [30]
Middle temporal gyrus/inferior temporal gyrus      Suslow et al. 2010 [30]
Middle temporal gyrus 21, 37     Townsend et al. 2010 [40]
Inferior temporal gyrus 20      Gotlib et al. 2005 [45]
Inferior temporal gyrus 37      Surguladze et al. 2010 [39]
Inferior temporal gyrus 20     Townsend et al. 2010 [40]
Superior temporal gyrus 42      Fu et al. 2008 [33]
Superior temporal gyrus 42      Keedwell et al. 2005 [42]
Fusiform gyrus 37      Fu et al. 2008 [33]
Fusiform gyrus 20      Keedwell et al. 2005 [42]
Fusiform gyrus 19 b   b   Surguladze et al. 2005 [31]
Fusiform gyrus      Suslow et al. 2010 [30]
  1. The table includes whole brain and region of interest (ROI) results of the described studies in Table 1, section 'Whole Brain and ROI studies'. The table does not include results on other study aspects such as treatment response or connectivity analyses.
  2. aDue to deactivations in controls.
  3. bLinear trend for increasing intensities of sadness/happiness.
  4. BA, Brodmann's area; DLPFC, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; DMPFC, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex; PFC, prefrontal cortex; PHG, parahippocampal gyrus; SMA, supplementary motor area; Sg, subgenual; VLPFC, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex; VMPFC, ventromedial prefrontal cortex.