Increased and decreased cingulate activation in major depressive disorder (MDD) patients in emotional face processing studies. Paramedian slice of a Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) template depicting abnormal cingulate activation during emotional face processing in major depressive disorder. Peak activation coordinates reported by primary authors in Talairach coordinates were converted into MNI space. Light blue: hyperactivation, dark blue: hypoactivation. ACC = anterior cingulate cortex.